Thursday, December 16, 2010

More Formulas!

Womens One A Day Multivitamin
1. Calcium Carbonate

2. Magnesium Oxide

3. Zinc Oxide

4. Manganese Sulfate

Pet Chews (Daily Vitamin & Mineral Support for Dogs)
5. Potassium Chloride

6. Potassium Iodide

Ultra Holistic Super Food (Small Breed Adult Dog Food)
7. Zinc Sulfate

Diet Pepsi
8. Phosphoric Acid

3D White Toothpaste by Crest
9. Sodium Floride

3D White Multi-Care Whitening Rinse
10. Hydrogen Peroxide

Ramen Noodle Soup Chicken Flavor
11. Potassium Carbonate

12. Sodium Carbonate

Eukanuba Healthy Extras Puppy Growth Croissancs Biscuits
13. Copper II Sulfate

Copper I Sulfate

Monster Energy Drink
14. Sodium Chloride

Sensodyne ProNamel Toothpaste
15. Potassium Nitrate

Eucerin Original Moisturizing Lotion
16. Magnesium Sulfate

St. Ives Daily Microdermabrasion
17. Sodium Hydroxide

Neutrogena Sensitve Skin Sunblock Lotion SPF 30
18. Aluminum Hydroxide

Tropicana Orange Juice
19. Calcium hydroxide

Dove Ultra Moisturizing Body Wash
20. Ammonium sulfate

Friday, November 12, 2010

Exam Review Question # 14

Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
-Focused a beam of positively charged particles (alpha particles) on a thin sheet of gold foil and set up a ring of detectors around the foil
*It was thought that the positively charged alpha particles would pass through atoms with very little deflection because the positive charges were thought to be spread out evenly.
Rutherford and his colleagues were shocked to see:
-A few alpha particles had very large deflections or bounced straight back towards the source
-They concluded that the alpha particles going straight through were passing through nearly empty space and that the particles bouncing back were hitting dense, positively charged centers.

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

J.J. Thomson's Cathode Ray Experiment


Thomson started the Cathode Ray experiment in the 1894 (19th century) at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University. He experimented with currents of electricity inside empty glass tubes.


Thomson’s first experiment was to investigate whether or not the negative charge could be separated from the cathode rays by magnetism.

To observe this he built a cathode ray tube with a metal cylinder on the end. This cylinder had two slits in it, leading to electrometers, which could measure small electric charges.

Thomson found that if the rays were magnetically bent and they could not enter the slit. Therefore, the electrometer registered little charge.

Thomson concluded that the negative charge was inseparable from the rays.

He found his conclusion by applying a magnetic field across the tube. Since the electrometers recorded no activity and so the charge had been bent away by the magnet.


Thomson’s second experiment was to prove that the rays carried a negative charge. His previous experiments did not prove this but he wanted to keep trying because he believed his previous experiment had been flawed because of the traced amounts of gas and a bad vacuum.

Thomson made a cathode ray with an almost perfect vacuum. This vacuum had two electrical pates halfway down the tube, one positively charged and one negatively charged. He knew that electrical charges repelled on another, which allowed him to see whether the charge was a positive or negative. He would observe this by looking at the light deflection pattern of the cathode ray

The rays were deflected by the electric charge. He concluded that cathode rays had a negative charge.


Although Thomson had performed all these experiments he was still curious to know what was the size of the cathode rays.

Thomson used a charge-to-mass ratio because he knew the weight of the cathode ray tube, the heat, the electrical current, and how much heat had been added from the electrons firing.

He concluded that the negative cathode ray particles were a thousand times tinier than an atom.

Along these lines he proved the existence of subatomic particles.


Since these puzzling rays of particles were a lot smaller than atoms Thomson concluded that they were microscopic pieces of atoms.

"He called these particles "corpuscles," and suggested that they might make up all of the matter in atoms. The “corpuscles” atoms were divisible."^1 (supposed to be a footnote- “J.J Thomson’s Cathode Ray Experiment.” n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2010.)

Thomson imagined the atom as being made up of these corpuscles swarming in an area of positive charge. This was his plum pudding model. Ernest Rutherford later proved this model incorrect.


The significance of the mass-to-charge ratio is that two particles with the same mass-to-charge ratio travel in the same pathway in a vacuum when focused on the constant electric and magnetic fields.

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“J.J Thomson’s Cathode Ray Experiment.” n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2010.

Gibson, J.J. Newworldencylcopedia.. Web. 3 Oct. 2010.

“Cathode Ray Tube Experiments.” eHow, 22 January, 2010. Alexander Newman. Web. 3 Oct. 2010

“The Experimental Discovery of Electron-Thomson Discover.” Think Quest. Oracle, n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2010.

“3 Big Experiemnts, 1 Big Idea.” Aip. n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2010,r:2,s:0&tx=39&ty=115,r:7,s:0,r:5,s:8&tx=98&ty=65&biw=1009&bih=459,r:2,s:0,r:0,s:0

Sunday, September 12, 2010

Where did the Peppermint go?

For this experiment I used a peppermint because it is a candy people often like to use to freshen up their breath. I observed what would happen to peppermints after I put it lemon juice, vinegar, and clorox (tide laundry detergent), clorox (disinfecting), and boiling water. This process allowed me to observe some physical properties of a peppermint and some chemical properties too.

Physical Properties:

Color: Red and White Stripes
Smell: Peppermint
Texture: Smooth
Diameter: 1/2 inch
Length: Little larger than 3/4 inch
Observing Chemical Properties by Performing a Chemical Reaction

Lemon Juice

For this experiment, I first poured a little bit of lemon juice into a glass and then dropped a peppermint into it. I then stirred it a little bit and watched what would happen.
1. When a peppermint is added to lemon juice, it immediately started to fizz because it was dissolving the peppermint.
2. I then observed a color change in the lemon juice. It changed colors from a yellow-ish to a red-ish & pink-ish color.
3. After the peppermint half-way dissolved i noticed that there was a slight change in odor, the odor of the lemon juice started to smell more lemony that it initially smelled
5. The glass now has the lemon juice with the dissolved peppermint and bubbles on top.
6. It looked like the lemon juice got more dense (thicker) than it was before.
7. It also looked like the peppermint sediments and lemon juice were slowly starting to separate I saw sediments starting to go to the bottom of the glass and the lemon juice was rising to the top. I think this happened because the peppermint sediments were more dense than the lemon juice therefore causing it to settle at the bottom of the glass.
Conclusion: I had figured out a chemical reaction was occurring because of color change, odor change, a solid was formed, and the bubbles of gas were produced. I also think the volume changed because the glass seemed to have more inside of it.


I first took a glass and poured some vinegar in it. I then took the peppermint and dropped it into the glass.
1. As soon as the peppermint was dropped into the vinegar the vinegar started to fizz.
2. It started to dissolve right after it was dropped into the vinegar.
3. Gradually changed color from clear to pale pink-orange color as it dissolved.
3. Fizzing was happening until the peppermint was not completely dissolved.
Conclusion: I had known a chemical reaction had taken place after I saw the color change, odor change, and saw the bubbles of gas were being produced.

Clorox (Tide Laundry Detergent)

I first took a glass and poured the clorox into the glass and then dropped the peppermint into the glass.
1. The color changed from a blue to a purple-blue color.
2. The clorox smelled more pepperminty.
3. The red stripes on the peppermint went to the bottom of the glass. On the bottom of the glass there was a redish color and on the top of the glass there was the blue-ish-purplish color.
4. The peppermint took over 1 hour to dissolve (longer than the lemon juice and vinegar)
5. Bubbles and Fizz are present on top of the clorox.
6. Out of all of the solutions I found this one to be most interesting because after 30 minutes only the peppermint skeleton remained (white dissolved red stripes still there). It took over 3 hours for the red skeleton to chip away and dissolve into the solution.
Conclusion: I had known a chemical reaction had taken place because of the color change, odor change, and bubbles of gas were being produced.

Clorox (Disinfecting)

For this experiment I poured some clorox into the glass and then dropped the mint in there. As soon as i did that I had to put a plate over the glass because the smell was really strong.
1. As soon as I dropped the peppermint into the clorox it made a sound (like the sound of when you open a can) and it immediately started to fizz
2. While the peppermint quickly dissolved bubbles and fizzing were being produced
3. Within ten minutes the peppermint quickly dissolved
4. At first there was a little clear-red-ish color change but after the peppermint dissolved the color change was no longer visible it turned back to clear liquid
5. I could not really tell if there was a smell change just because I did not really take a good sniff at the clorox because it is hazardous and not safe to smell. I immediately threw away the clorox but what I can say is that clorox by it self has a really strong odor.
6. Since I covered the glass with a plate over it i noticed some fogging up on the glass. This is probably because the gas has no where to escape therefore causing the glass to fog.
Conclusion: I knew a a chemical reaction had taken place because of initial color changed and bubbles of gas were being produced. Also my glass was fogged up.


For this experiment I took a pot and put hot water into it and then let it sit on the gas burner until i saw it boiling. I then dropped the peppermint into the pot.
1. When I first dropped it in it immediately started to meld and created fizz and bubbles.
2. I then saw that the red stripes of the peppermint was changing the color of the water from clear-pink-ish & red-ish.
3. Within three minutes the peppermint had completely melted.
4. I then smelled the water and it smelled like peppermint.
Conclusion: I knew a chemical reaction had taken place because of the color change, odor change, it melted due to the boiling water, and bubbles of gas were being produced.

I had trouble designing my experiments because I wasn't sure if what I was doing was going to be correct. For instance I wasn't sure if my peppermint idea would work. I thought I should use other food items. After contemplating on what to do for awhile I decided I should go ahead and just try it because I had nothing to loose, I would just gain more knowledge even if it didn't work. When I tried it, I was pleased with my results and wrote down everything I saw. While I was observing I wasn't sure of some observations. For example, with the lemon juice I wasn't sure if the liquid got more dense, if the volume increased, and were those little particles in the lemon juice the leftovers from the peppermint? I then tried to use clues and asked my self why the liquid was separating. I guessed that maybe what I called "sediments" were a solid and that the solid was more dense therefore causing it to float to do the bottom. After the lemon juice experiment I started to understand most of what was happening.

Note: The picture's are all in order from what I did first to last.